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Total greenhouse gas emissions

The figure shows the trend in total greenhouse gas emissions in Oslo (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and fluorinated gases) from 1991 to 2012 by source of emissions, expressed in CO2 equivalents.

Oslo has set a goal of halving greenhouse gas emissions relative to the 1991 level by 2030. The goal is shown in the figure by a green line.

Total direct greenhouse gas emissions in Oslo
Färgruta Transport og mobil forbrenning
Färgruta Stasjonær forbrenning
Färgruta Fluorgasser og løsemidler
Färgruta Avfallsdeponi
Färgruta Prosessutslipp og industri
Färgruta Avløp og avløpsrensing
Färgruta Jordbruk
Data source: Statistics Norway (SSB). Starting with figures for 2009, SSB's methodology was slightly changed.
Trend:Development in wrong direction Development in wrong direction since 1991
Last value:1.4 Million tonnes (2012)
Initial value:1.2 Million tonnes (1991)
Goal value:0.6 Million tonnes (2030)


In 1991, direct emissions of greenhouse gases from Oslo, as defined by the Kyoto Protocol, amounted to 1.16 million tonnes of CO2 equivalents.

20 percent increase in emissions since 1991
Between 1991 and 2012, greenhouse gas emissions increased by 20 percent - reaching 1,397 million tons of CO2 in 2012. Emissions from the transport sector accounts for 61 percent of emissions while the use of fossil fuels for heating (stationary energy) account for 36 percent of emissions.

The figures from 2009 to 2012 are obtained using new methodology (see more below) and are comparable.

Emissions from transport have increased slightly. Emissions from construction vehicles and equipment stands for a majority of this growth (from 145 000 to 203 000 tonnes of CO2). Emissions from passenger and freight transport have not changed over this period.

Regarding heating, it is particularly emissions from the district heating system which has increased (from 160 000 tonnes of CO2 to 241 000 tonnes of CO2). Oslo has set a goal of phasing out oil and natural gas in the district heating system, and is on track to reach this goal. In 2012, emissions from these sources accounted for approximately 27 000 tons of CO2. However, the waste that is used for energy recovery contains some plastic, which contributes to greenhouse gas emissions from this production. Oslo is working to recycle a greater share of the plastic.

Methodological challenges
The figures presented above from 2009 and on are not fully comparable with previous figures from Statistics Norway (SSB). This is because SSB in September 2014 presented new figures from 2009 until 2012. In the new statistics, numbers that cannot be placed to specific counties, such as emissions related to shipping, aviation, offshore and emissions of CFCs are not presented. These emissions account for about 30% of Norwegian emissions. In addition, SSB reviewed the methodology for data collection in other sectors. This resulted in somewhat different emission figures compared to earlier presented figures, and thus, figures before 2009 and figures from 2009 on are not fully comparable.

Considerable indirect emissions
The figure displays direct emissions from Oslo. However, the city also has considerable indirect emissions, from the production of consumer goods and services that are, for instance, produced outside Norway, as well as emissions from the production of electricity purchased by Oslo. In 2009, Environmental Systems Analysis (MiSA) conducted a preliminary study on the climate footprint of Oslo that included direct, as well as indirect emissions (Scope 1, 2 and 3). The study estimated total emissions to be 9 million tonnes CO2, based on the assumption that the electricity mix is nordic.